During the HOW phase the objective is to identify the steps required to create the deliverables identified in the WHAT phase.

Keep in mind that every deliverable has input, processes, and output. In the WHAT phase you documented the input and output. In the HOW phase you document the process, the steps required to create the deliverables.

Also keep in mind that much of the work of the project is not project work. In many cases the deliverable in question can be created using existing processes or sub-contracted.

In order to discover these steps we use a simple technique of working backwards from the outputs until we reach a need for each input.

Let's assume that one of your outputs is a test report indicating the product functions as required. The person or team that is responsible for creating that deliverable would ask a simple question, "In order to have a final test report demonstrating full functionality we must have (or do) ____? (Generically, the question is: "In order to do (or have) ____ we must do (or have) ____?") When you complete this sentence you will have the task that immediately precedes finishing the deliverable (there may be more than one).

Now, ask the same question for that (or those) tasks. Continue this process, moving backwards, until the answer to the question is to obtain each of the inputs or you could do it now, it has no predecessor. Now you have all the tasks and their sequence.

The ProjectBall System includes:


   action steps,

   quality checklists,


   and a list of tips for completing the actions of this phase.